Deferred revenue primarily consists of upfront incentives or subsidies received from various state governmental jurisdictions for operating certain of the Company's renewable energy facilities or from the sale of investment tax credits to non-controlling members. The amounts deferred are recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the depreciable life of the renewable energy facility or upon the contingency of claw-back of the tax credits resolve as the Company fulfills its obligation to operate these renewable energy facilities. Recognition of deferred revenue was $16.5 million, $9.9 million and $0.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the liability method, which requires that it use the asset and liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes and provide deferred income taxes for all significant temporary differences.
The Company reports certain of its revenues and expenses differently for financial statement purposes than for income tax return purposes, resulting in temporary and permanent differences between the Company's financial statements and income tax returns. The tax effects of such temporary differences are recorded as either deferred income tax assets or deferred income tax liabilities in the Company's consolidated balance sheets. The Company measures its deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities using income tax rates that are currently in effect. The Company believes it is more likely than not that the results of future operations will generate sufficient taxable income, which includes the future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences to realize deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the net deferred tax assets to an amount that is more-likely-than-not to be realized. Tax benefits are recognized when it is more-likely-than-not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination by the authorities. The benefit recognized from a position that has surpassed the more-likely-than-not threshold is the largest amount of benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon settlement. The Company recognizes interest and penalties accrued related to uncertain tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. Changes to existing net deferred tax assets or valuation allowances or changes to uncertain tax benefits are recorded to income tax expense.
Non-controlling Interests and Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value ("HLBV")
Non-controlling interests represent the portion of net assets in consolidated entities that are not owned by the Company and are reported as a component of equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries that are redeemable either at the option of the holder or at fixed and determinable prices at certain dates in the future are classified as redeemable non-controlling interests in subsidiaries between liabilities and stockholders' equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Redeemable non-controlling interests that are currently redeemable or redeemable after the passage of time are adjusted to their redemption value as changes occur. The Company applies the guidance in ASC 810-10 along with the SEC guidance in ASC 480-10-S99-3A in the valuation of redeemable non-controlling interests.
The Company has determined the allocation of economics between the controlling party and the third party for non-controlling interests does not correspond to ownership percentages for certain of its consolidated subsidiaries. In order to reflect the substantive profit sharing arrangements, the Company has determined that the appropriate methodology for determining the value of non-controlling interests is a balance sheet approach using the HLBV method. Under the HLBV method, the amounts reported as non-controlling interest on the consolidated balance sheets represent the amounts the third party investors could hypothetically receive at each balance sheet reporting date based on the liquidation provisions of the respective operating partnership agreements. HLBV assumes that the proceeds available for distribution are equivalent to the unadjusted, stand-alone net assets of each respective partnership, as determined under U.S. GAAP. The third party non-controlling interests in the consolidated statements of operations and statements of comprehensive loss are determined based on the difference in the carrying amounts of non-controlling interests on the consolidated balance sheets between reporting dates, adjusted for any capital transactions between the Company and third party investors that occurred during the respective period.
Where, prior to the commencement of operating activities for a respective renewable energy facility, HLBV results in an immediate change in the carrying value of non-controlling interest on the consolidated balance sheet due to the recognition of ITCs or other adjustments as required by the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, the Company defers the recognition of the respective adjustments and recognizes the adjustments in non-controlling interest on the consolidated statement of operations on a straight-line basis over the expected life of the underlying assets giving rise to the respective difference. Similarly, where