The first step in the two-step impairment test is the comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. The Company defines its reporting units to be consistent with its reportable segments. In accordance with the authoritative guidance over fair value measurements, the Company defines the fair value of a reporting unit as the price that would be received to sell the unit as a whole in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The Company primarily uses the income approach methodology of valuation, which uses the discounted cash flow method, to estimate the fair values of the Company's reporting units. The Company does not believe that a cost approach is relevant to measuring the fair values of its reporting units.
Significant management judgment is required when estimating the fair value of the Company's reporting units, including the forecasting of future operating results, the discount rates and expected future growth rates that it uses in the discounted cash flow method of valuation, and in the selection of comparable businesses that are used in the market approach. If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds the carrying value assigned to that unit, goodwill is not impaired and no further analysis is required.
If the carrying value assigned to a reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value in the first step, then the Company is required to perform the second step of the impairment test. In this step, the Company assigns the fair value of the reporting unit calculated in step one to all of the assets and liabilities of that reporting unit as if a market participant just acquired the reporting unit in a business combination. The excess of the fair value of the reporting unit determined in the first step of the impairment test over the total amount assigned to the assets and liabilities in the second step of the impairment test represents the implied fair value of goodwill. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of goodwill, the Company would record an impairment loss equal to the difference. The Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $55.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 as reflected in the consolidated statement of operations (see Note 8. Goodwill for further discussion).
Interest incurred on funds borrowed to finance construction of renewable energy facilities is capitalized until the system is ready for its intended use. The amount of interest capitalized during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 was $1.6 million, $22.7 million and $19.7 million, respectively.
Financing Lease Obligations
Certain of the Company's assets were financed with sale-leaseback arrangements. Proceeds received from a sale-leaseback are treated using the deposit method when the sale of the renewable energy facility is not recognizable. A sale is not recognized when the leaseback arrangements include a prohibited form of continuing involvement, such as an option or obligation to repurchase the assets under the Company's master lease agreements. Under these arrangements, the Company does not recognize any profit until the sale is recognizable, which the Company expects will be at the end of the arrangement when the contract is canceled and the initial deposits received are forfeited by the financing party.
The Company is required to make rental payments over the course of the leaseback arrangements. These payments are allocated between principal and interest payments using an effective yield method.
Deferred Financing Costs
Financing costs incurred in connection with obtaining construction and term financing are deferred and amortized over the maturities of the respective financing arrangements using the effective interest method. As discussed below, as of January 1, 2016, the Company adopted ASU No. 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30) Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs and ASU No. 2015-15 Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Arrangements and reclassified deferred financing costs to be presented as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt in both the current and prior periods, with the exception of the costs related to the Company's senior secured revolving credit facility, which are still presented as a non-current asset on the balance sheet. Amortization of deferred financing costs is capitalized during construction and recorded as interest expense in the consolidated statements of operations following achievement of commercial operation.