payments and other purposes in accordance with the applicable debt agreements. These restrictions include: (i) cash on deposit in collateral accounts, debt service reserve accounts and maintenance reserve accounts; and (ii) cash on deposit in operating accounts but subject to distribution restrictions related to debt defaults existing as of the balance sheet date.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for disclosures concerning recently issued accounting standards. These disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
We are exposed to several market risks in our normal business activities. Market risk is the potential loss that may result from market changes associated with our business or with an existing or forecasted financial or commodity transaction. The types of market risks we are exposed to are interest rate risk, foreign currency risk and commodity risk. We do not use derivative financial instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
Interest Rate Risk
As of December 31, 2016, the estimated fair value of our debt was $4,080.4 million and the carrying value of our debt was $3,950.9 million. We estimate that a hypothetical 100 bps, or 1%, increase and decrease in market interest rates would have decreased and increased the fair value of our long-term debt by $95.2 million and $106.2 million, respectively.
As of December 31, 2016, our corporate-level debt consisted of the Senior Notes due 2023 (fixed rate), the Senior Notes due 2025 (fixed rate) and the Revolver (variable rate). We have not entered into any interest rate derivatives to swap our variable rate corporate-level debt to a fixed rate, and thus we are exposed to fluctuations in interest rate risk. A hypothetical increase or decrease in interest rates by 1% would have increased or decreased interest expense related to our Revolver by $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.
As of December 31, 2016, our non-recourse permanent financing debt was at both variable and fixed rates. 52% of the $2,078.0 million balance had a variable interest rate and the remaining 48% of the balance had a fixed interest rate. We have entered into interest rate derivatives to swap certain of our variable rate non-recourse debt to a fixed rate. Although we intend to use hedging strategies to mitigate our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, we may not hedge all of our interest rate risk and, to the extent we enter into interest rate hedges, our hedges may not necessarily have the same duration as the associated indebtedness. Our exposure to interest rate fluctuations will depend on the amount of indebtedness that bears interest at variable rates, the time at which the interest rate is adjusted, the amount of the adjustment, our ability to prepay or refinance variable rate indebtedness when fixed rate debt matures and needs to be refinanced and hedging strategies we may use to reduce the impact of any increases in rates. We estimate that a hypothetical 100 bps, or 1%, increase or decrease in our variable interest rates pertaining to interest rate swaps not designated as hedges would have increased or decreased our earnings by $22.7 million and $25.6 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Foreign Currency Risk
During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we generated operating revenues in the United States (including Puerto Rico), Canada, the United Kingdom, and Chile, with our revenues being denominated in U.S. dollars, Canadian dollars and British pounds. The PPAs, operating and maintenance agreements, financing arrangements and other contractual arrangements relating to our current portfolio are denominated in U.S. dollars, Canadian dollars and British pounds.